Fungal diseases are also known as mycoses. This is a whole group of diseases that occur if the skin, mucous membranes, eyes, and sometimes internal organs affect pathogenic or conditionally pathogenic fungi.
It is believed that human immunity protects him from most fungal diseases. Moreover, normally certain types of fungus are present in the intestine, on the mucous membranes and on the surface of the skin, but until a certain point they are “in a sleeping state”, in other words, they do not attack the body. This state of affairs persists until the so-called "microbial balance" is disturbed. If this balance was disturbed for some reason (exhaustion, serious illness, abuse of antibiotics or other drugs), the fungi actively "grow".
Mycoses are diseases that are highly contagious. In addition, they significantly reduce the quality of life due to causing not only physical, but also psychological discomfort. Fungal lesions cause serious cosmetic problems, provoking self-doubt, the development of psychological complexes and phobias, complicating the skin care procedure.
In the event that the patient delays with treatment or the technique is chosen incorrectly, complications may develop, including generalized lesions by the fungi of the whole organism.
Fungal skin diseases
Fungal skin lesions are usually manifested by discoloration of the skin, the appearance of spots, itching and peeling. Of course, these symptoms alone are very unpleasant and are an occasion for a visit to a dermatologist, however, the main danger of the disease is that the waste products of fungi are serious toxins that literally poison the human body. As a result, not only the surface of the skin is deformed, but chronic diseases are exacerbated, intolerance of certain products or medicines appears, and bacterial or viral complications arise. Therefore, fungal skin diseases should be taken very seriously and not delayed by a visit to the doctor.
In order to choose the most effective treatment tactics, specialists must first determine which type of fungal skin lesion they have encountered. For this, a thorough study is carried out: microscopic and / or cultural diagnosis. The microscopic method involves examining a patient obtained by scraping nails, skin flakes or hair. Thus, the presence or absence of a fungal infection as such is detected. In order to identify which particular fungal disease the patient suffers from, fungi are grown in a special nutrient medium, and then the grown colony is evaluated and examined.
Types of fungal skin diseases
Today, doctors distinguish several types of fungal skin diseases. All of them have their own clinical manifestations and need certain treatment:
- Keratomycoses are diseases in which the fungus affects only the upper layer of the skin. One of the most common forms of keratomycosis is pityriasis versicolor, which is also called multicolored. It is a pinkish-brown spot that peels slightly. As a rule, it manifests itself on the chest, back, shoulders and neck. It is noteworthy that this disease does not cause any inflammatory reactions. Teenagers and middle-aged people usually become victims of colorful lichen, and the peak incidence occurs in the spring.
- Dermatomycoses are diseases in which the outer layer of the skin, dermis, as well as nails and the scalp become the “victims” of the fungus. This group includes the most common fungal lesions - mycoses of the hands and feet. The victims of the last of these diseases are usually people suffering from excessive sweating of the legs, as well as those who often visit public saunas or pools. Endocrine problems and a love of rubber shoes also contribute to the development of fungal diseases of the feet. With a mild form of the disease, the skin only peels slightly, there is a slight reddening of the areas between the fingers, as well as itching, which intensifies after contact with water. If you do not start treatment, then the symptoms will intensify, corns, erosion, swelling and hyperemia of the skin appear.
- Candidiasis is a disease in which the skin, intestines, mucous membranes, and also the genitals are affected. The causative agent of this disease is a yeast-like candida fungus, which begins to proliferate as soon as the body's resistance decreases. Therefore, at risk are primarily children, people of advanced age, as well as those who have significantly weakened immunity. Candidiasis most often develops in skin folds. The skin turns red, and the inflamed area always has clear boundaries. Affected skin is wet, it may be covered with white coating.
- Sporotrichosis. This fungus affects both the superficial and deep layers of the skin. Subcutaneous tissue, mucous membranes and internal organs also suffer. Most often, nodules of sporotrichosis appear on the skin of the hands, on the legs, and in the inguinal region.
- Deep coccidioid mycosis is one of the most dangerous types of the disease, since it affects not only the skin, but also the internal organs of a person. If medical care is not provided in a timely manner, a person may die.
Methods for the treatment of fungal skin diseases
In total, three methods of therapy are used to treat fungal skin lesions. The first of them involves the use of local drugs, the second - oral therapy, and finally, the third - a combination of the first two options.
Local medicines are a variety of ointments, gels, suspensions and other drugs. Their feature is that they act solely on the focus of the disease, while not getting into the bloodstream. As a rule, such funds are used if a relatively small area of the skin is affected by the fungus.
The duration of treatment varies. It can be from a week to several months if the therapy was not started immediately after the detection of the disease. Apply external agents several times a day.
Oral drugs affect not only the affected area, but also the entire body. As a rule, they have a wide range of side effects, and therefore most often the course of treatment is not too long. Apply these funds for significant areas of the lesion, as well as if the disease is started.
Combination therapy is often used. External drugs reduce the intensity of symptoms and accelerate healing, while tablets eliminate the pathogen.
Another nuance is extremely important: no matter what type of therapy is used, you cannot interrupt the course yourself. The scheme by which the drugs will be used, as well as the duration of treatment, is determined by the doctor, based on the symptoms and type of fungal infection:
- An indispensable condition for the successful treatment of keratomycosis is careful hygiene and reduced sweating. Antifungal and antibacterial drugs are used, both external and internal action. The affected areas of the skin are carefully treated with solutions of sodium hyposulfite and hydrochloric acid.
- With dermatomycosis, a diet with a minimal presence of sweet and salty in the diet should be followed. Antihistamines are prescribed to relieve itching, as well as vitamins. Local manifestations help to remove rubdowns and lotions based on solutions of salicylic acid and iodine, as well as tar ointment. Fungal lesions of the feet require careful hygiene, a temporary refusal to visit the beach and pool. Antifungal ointments, lotions with a cooling effect, antimycotic and corticosteroid preparations are used.
- With candidiasis of the skin, systemic antibacterial drugs are completely canceled. Antifungal therapy with ointments and creams is carried out, lesions are treated with antiseptics. It is imperative to take medications that will help restore the intestinal microflora. Muffins, sweet foods, foods containing simple carbohydrates are excluded from the diet.
- For the treatment of skin manifestations of sporotrichosis, the latest generation of antifungal drugs, as well as potassium iodide, are used.
- Treatment of deep coccidioid mycosis involves treatment with modern antimycotic drugs. It should be borne in mind that most of them are extremely toxic, and therefore they can not be used to treat patients suffering from liver or renal failure.
Treatment of skin fungus with folk remedies
Traditional medicine offers a huge number of recipes for the treatment of fungal skin diseases. Many of them are quite effective, however, before using herbal decoctions and tinctures, it is necessary to consult a doctor without fail.
- Grind the peppermint leaves and add a little salt to them. Mash thoroughly. The finished mass can be applied to the affected areas in the treatment of foot fungus.
- 10 g of lilac flowers pour 120 g of alcohol. Within two weeks, the product should be infused in a dry and dark place. After this, strain and wipe the affected area.
- Wipe the site of fungal infection with juice from the leaves of the fruit tree.
- Mix oak bark, medicinal verbena, fruits of the blueberry blackberry, calendula inflorescences and horsetail in a ratio of 3: 2: 2: 2: 2. Three tablespoons of the collection pour a glass of boiled water and boil over very low heat for a quarter hour. When the product has cooled, use it for lotions.
- In case of fungal infection of the nails with a plaster, fix a fresh leaf of Kalanchoe on the nail plate, after mashing it.
ENT fungal diseases
According to statistics, every fourth patient who has been diagnosed with chronic ENT diseases of a chronic nature suffers from a fungal infection.
In this case, diseases of the ears, nose and throat are caused not only by pathogenic fungi, but also those that are present in a healthy body - for example, yeast-like fungi of candida.
As soon as the microbial balance in the body is disturbed, enhanced reproduction of the fungus begins.
Fungal diseases of the throat are called pharyngomycosis, fungal diseases of the ears are called otomycosis. Rhinomycosis is a fungal lesion of the paranasal sinuses and nasal mucosa, and larycomycosis is a chronic laryngitis provoked by fungi.
Causes of fungal diseases of ENT organs
The causes of fungal lesions of ENT organs vary. The development of mycoses can be triggered by both internal and external factors.
We single out the main ones:
- Immunity disorders. The reason for the decrease in the body's resistance can be not only diseases, but also uncontrolled intake of various drugs, primarily antibiotics and corticosteroids. Abuse of antiseptics can also provoke fungal infections of the throat, as a result of which the microflora of the mucosa suffers.
- Increased blood sugar due to diabetes.
- Change in hormonal levels. This problem is faced mainly by older women. Dry mucous membranes is one of the factors in the development of fungal infection.
- Microtrauma of the mucosa. They most often cause the development of otomycosis. Injured skin secretes extracellular fluid, which is an excellent breeding ground for the development of fungal infections. In this case, the thickness of the skin of the outer ear is only half a millimeter, so making it easier to hurt. It is noteworthy that often we do not even notice this. Injury to the skin of the ear is even possible with a regular cotton swab, which many use to remove earwax. Otomycosis can also develop due to the fact that water got into the ear when bathing.
- Pharyngomycosis is often called a removable denture disease. If they were chosen incorrectly, the development of a fungal infection is possible.
- Another reason for the occurrence of fungal lesions of ENT organs is tooth problems. Caries contributes to the development of fungal diseases of the sinuses. Often fungal spores are introduced into this area after poor-quality treatment of the fourth, fifth and sixth teeth of the upper jaw - their roots either grow in the paranasal sinuses, or are adjacent to their bottom. Therefore, it is impossible to delay dental treatment, and the choice of a dentist should be approached with extreme responsibility.
- Fungal lesions of the larynx, also known as laryngomycosis, often develop under the influence of harmful environmental factors. These diseases are susceptible to people who, by occupation, often inhale dust, fumes of acids or alkalis, as well as other chemicals. In addition, too hot a drink or food and strong alcoholic beverages can damage the delicate mucous membrane of the larynx.
- GERD, a gastroesophagic reflux disease, is also often the cause of laryngomycosis. Fungal infection occurs due to the reverse reflux of acidic contents from the stomach into the esophagus and larynx.
Symptoms of fungal diseases of ENT organs
Fungal diseases of ENT organs, many ignorant citizens are often confused with the manifestations of the common cold or SARS.
Indeed, the symptoms are somewhat similar:
- Pharyngomycosis is manifested by discomfort in the throat, burning, dryness and perspiration. At the same time, unpleasant sensations are more pronounced than with a bacterial lesion. The pain is classified as moderate, but increases with swallowing and with hot or spicy foods. Pain can radiate to the submandibular zone, as well as to the ear region. In addition, with pharyngomycosis, the mucous membrane of the throat swells, a plaque forms on it. Patients complain of general symptoms of intoxication.
- Manifestations of otomycosis are hearing loss and ear discomfort. The external auditory meatus may turn red. Patients complain that the ear seems to “burst” from the inside, as if there was a certain foreign body in it. Dense discharge from the ear canal is also noted, which can be white, yellow or almost black.
- Rhinomycosis is manifested by frequent nosebleeds, increased dryness of the nasal mucosa, pain and "bursting" of the paranasal sinuses.
- Companions of laryngomycosis is a dry cough, a change in the timbre of the voice. A whitish tinge appears on the tonsils. Often inflamed cervical lymph nodes. Cracks can also occur in the corners of the lips, which do not heal for a long time and are very painful.
Treatment of fungal diseases of ENT organs
A fungal infection of ENT organs can be treated worse than a bacterial one. Doctors explain this by the fact that in their structure the cells of the fungi are similar to human cells.Therefore, it is difficult to influence them even with the help of the most modern antimycotic drugs.
Before conducting drug therapy, the physician must necessarily conduct a laboratory study of a smear from the throat and ear. If a fungal infection of the sinuses is suspected, an x-ray or computed tomography is performed.
For the treatment of mycoses of ENT organs, antimycotic drugs of external and internal action are used. The use of immunostimulating drugs is also recommended. Surgical treatment is often necessary for the treatment of mycosis of the sinuses.
Fungal eye diseases
Fungal lesions of the eyes are considered one of the most serious mycoses, as they are difficult to treat. They are found not too often, but in total there are more than fifty species of fungus that can provoke ophthalmic mycoses. In children, fungal eye disease is more common than in adults.
Eye fungus types
The most common cause of fungal damage to the organs of vision are the following microorganisms:
- Aspergillosis - mold fungi that are often found on human skin. With normal immunity, they do not affect the organs of vision, and with a decrease in the resistance of the organism, they can cause ophthalmic problems.
- Candidomycosis of the organs of vision provoke yeast fungi, which are present in the human body as opportunistic microflora.
- Sporotrichosis can develop when it hits the surface of the eyeball or mucous membrane of fungi that inhabit the soil.
- Actinomycosis provoke so-called radiant fungi that enter the body through damaged skin.
Symptoms of the disease
Symptoms of mycosis of the eye are the same, regardless of the type of fungus that provoked them. Patients complain of burning and itching, drying of the mucous membrane of the eyes. Increased tearing begins, the whites of the eyes turn red. The clarity of vision decreases, patients complain of "veil", "fog", turbidity, the feeling of "sand in the eyes." Nodules and dense formations may appear under the eyelid, ulcers and sores on the surface of the eyelid. In case of a serious fungal infection, purulent discharges are present, the eye is swollen.
Causes of Eye Fungus
It is believed that if the immune system is functioning normally, the person is completely protected from the development of eye fungus. Therefore, almost the main risk group is people with reduced body resistance.
In addition, fungal eye damage may occur due to other reasons. This is a variety of injuries of domestic or industrial nature, the abuse of antibiotics, diabetes. Also, fungal eye damage can develop in people who use contact lenses, but do not follow the rules for their use. In particular, mycosis can provoke the wearing of lenses longer than the period specified by the manufacturer.
In some cases, the fungus is transferred to the mucous membrane of the eye in case of mycoses of the skin on the face.
Treatment of fungal diseases of the eye
Mycoses of the organs of sight is a serious disease that needs timely and thorough treatment. Only in this case can serious consequences be avoided - ranging from a decrease in visual acuity and total blindness to disturbances in the brain.
First of all, the ophthalmologist must determine the cause of the disease and the type of fungus that caused it. For a correct diagnosis, the patient must provide information on all chronic and congenital diseases, as well as on the medications that he takes. A scraping from the conjunctiva of the eye is also carried out.
In most cases, the treatment of mycoses of the eye is carried out on an outpatient basis. If the disease is started, the patient may be hospitalized.
Most often, Okomistin drops are used to treat fungal eye disease, the active ingredient of which is the broad-spectrum antimicrobial drug Miramistin. It is effective in treating most known types of fungus. This drug can be used in the treatment of patients of any age, but the dosage is adjusted individually in each case.
If the disease is severe, then amphotericin B injections are also used.
It is necessary to take into account that the drugs used to treat fungal lesions of the organs of vision are very potent and have a serious effect on the entire body. Therefore, it is extremely important to strictly follow the dosage and adhere to the recommendations of the doctor. Unsystematic and uncontrolled use of drugs can lead to deterioration.
It should be borne in mind that the fungus can not only pass to the mucous membrane of the eye from the skin of the face, but in some cases “migrate” in the opposite direction - from the mucous membrane of the eye to healthy skin. As a rule, this happens only if mycosis of the eyes is extremely neglected and the person’s immunity is reduced. Therefore, in the treatment of fungal eye disease, hygiene must be observed.
Treatment of eye fungus with traditional medicine
Traditional medicine offers a fairly large number of prescriptions for the treatment of fungal diseases of the organs of vision. Some of them are effective, but in any case, the use of such methods must be coordinated with your doctor. This will ensure that traditional treatment and treatment of traditional methods will not be mutually exclusive due to the incompatibility of the components used.
So, in order to alleviate the condition of the patient, sleeping tea can be used. It is used for compresses and lotions. It must be borne in mind that tea itself will not relieve the fungus, but it will help alleviate the symptoms: burning, itching and pain.
A decoction of yarrow and calamus is also used. To make it, mix one tablespoon of herbs and pour 500 g of boiling water over this mixture. After the tool has cooled, it is used for washing the eyes.
Fresh cucumbers are also used to relieve symptoms. A small-sized cucumber is peeled, and then finely chopped and poured 500 ml of boiling water. Then add half a teaspoon of soda to the mixture. Within an hour, the tool must be infused, and then it must be filtered through cheesecloth. When the composition has cooled, a cotton pad is moistened in it and applied to the sore eye. Keep such a compress is necessary for an hour.
Finally, we note that it is easier to prevent any diseases of a fungal nature than to cure; therefore, their prevention, hygiene, and increasing body resistance play an extremely important role.