The use of electric current is named after the Italian physician and physicist Luigi Galvani. The first practical use was in the form of electrolysis or hair removal in the late 1800s. Since then, its primary use has been a non-invasive agent for topical penetration of drugs for therapeutic purposes. Low galvanic current levels have been used by skin care specialists for the past 50 years.
Disincrustation - what is it
A device with galvanic current uses two polarities - positive and negative current. Most devices have a separate electrode for each. One electrode is held by the person receiving the treatment, while the other maneuvers around the skin with the specialist who is treating. This creates a simple outline. The current, depending on the polarity and acidity or alkalinity of the product, causes a chemical reaction when the electrode is applied.
A galvanic current is used to create 2 significant reactions in aesthetics: chemical (disincrustation) and ionic (iontophoresis).
A galvanic machine converts the alternating current received from the network into direct current. Then the electrons are allowed to flow continuously in one direction.
Creating a relaxation response that can be adjusted to increase the specific nerve endings in the epidermis is a common thing, and it is normal when the machine leaves a metallic aftertaste in the mouth.
Beauticians use disincrustation to facilitate deep pore cleaning. During this process, galvanic current is used to create a chemical reaction that emulsifies or liquefies sebum. This treatment is useful for oily and acne skin because it helps to soften and relax the “litter” in the follicle before extraction.
To carry out disincrustation, an alkaline-based electronegative solution is placed on the skin surface. This solution helps soften sebum and follicles for deep pore cleansing. During the procedure, the client holds a positive electrode, a positive polarity in his hand.
A beautician uses a negative electrode mounted on a negative polarity to treat facial skin. This creates a chemical reaction that turns sebum or skin into soap, a process known as saponification.
Soap is made from fats and alkalis (sodium hydroxide). When an electric current interacts with the salts (sodium chloride) on the skin, it creates a chemical known as sodium hydroxide or alkali, while softening them.
Algorithm for conducting iontophoresis
Ions are atoms or molecules that carry an electric charge. Current flows through conducting solutions from positive and negative polarities. This process is known as ionization, the separation of matter into ions.
The ion penetration process takes two forms:
- cataphoresis: refers to the infusion of a positive product;
- anaphoresis: refers to the infusion of an germinal product.
Theoretically, iontophoresis is based on the universal laws of attraction. For example, negative attracts positive and vice versa. Like a magnetic response, iontophoresis creates an exchange of negative and positive ions or charges.
Indications and contraindications for the procedure
Experts say that galvanic facial cleansing will be effective in the presence of problematic or oily skin in the case when no other methods and cosmetic products help. The procedure effectively cleanses pores from grease and dirt.
The main indications for the procedure are pigmented lesions that remained after inflammatory diseases on the skin, seborrhea, melasma, premature photoaging, at the initial stage of age-related skin changes, acne and comedones.
This procedure has contraindications. One of the most dangerous is the installation of a pacemaker in the patient’s body.
Electric current can damage the operation of the device, which will entail serious and possibly fatal consequences. Also, the procedure is contraindicated in the presence of:
- oncological diseases;
- neurotic conditions;
- heart failure, hypertension;
- bleeding disorder;
- molluscum contagiosum;
- acute purulent inflammatory processes;
- cuts, abrasions;
- dry and sensitive skin.
Also prohibited is the procedure in the presence of pregnancy, hypersensitivity to electric current or to used electrolytes.
It is forbidden to carry out disincrustation during pregnancy. This is due to the presence of a woman's unstable hormonal background, which, in turn, could adversely affect the development of the fetus in contact with the galvanic current. It is also not recommended to carry out this kind of facial cleansing during the menstrual cycle and a week before the expected start of menstruation.
Efficiency and advantages of the procedure
Galvanophoresis conducts deep cleansing of pores, which frees the skin from sebaceous plugs. The skin breathes and is saturated with oxygen, metabolic processes are accelerated, the skin condition is significantly improved.
Disincrustation helps to remove acne, black spots, blackheads from the surface of the skin and restore the sebaceous glands. As a result of the procedure, the skin softens, moisturizes, relaxes, which allows for high-quality cleaning.
During the procedure, on aging skin, an increase in its elasticity is observed, small wrinkles are smoothed, and facial contours improve. The procedure is completely safe provided there are no contraindications.
Among the main advantages of the procedure, it is worth noting the perfect combination with other cosmetic procedures, an affordable price, an additional lifting effect. The procedure has no side effects, does not require preparatory procedures, is completely painless and thoroughly cleanses the skin.
The duration of the procedure is from 5 to 15 minutes. After disincrustation, a special moisturizer is applied to the face.