Salmonellosis nutrition is part of a comprehensive treatment for the disease. In salmonellosis, the intestinal mucosa is damaged, and the pathogen most often enters the body with food. Therefore, to restore the body in the acute, subacute and recovery period, an effective method of correction and optimization of daily nutrition is necessary, taking into account the impact on the gastrointestinal tract of chemical, mechanical and thermal food factors.
Prohibited foods for infection
After a person has the first signs of infection, eating is clearly the last thing he will think about in the next day. The fact is that salmonellosis begins abruptly and acutely, with an increase in temperature, to which nausea and vomiting, frequent diarrhea and abdominal pain join. On the first day, when the symptoms are especially intense, it is better to completely abandon food, drink as much mineral water as possible, or Regidron's electrolyte solution.
In this case, a diet of acute gastrointestinal conditions should be observed. This corresponds to the medical diet No. 4 according to Pevzner, the essence of which is to create the most sparing mode of operation of the digestive system, which is achieved by including in the diet only those foods and prepared dishes, the digestion of which does not require the release of a large amount of gastric secretion and does not cause fermentation of undigested intestinal food microflora and intestinal motility. As a result, the chemical and mechanical effects on the gastrointestinal tract are reduced to a minimum.
So, from the menu of a person suffering from salmonellosis, any fresh vegetables rich in the content of coarse fiber and plant fibers are excluded, namely cabbage, radish, radish, beets, cucumbers, any legumes, tomatoes, mushrooms.
It is forbidden to eat bread from rye flour, especially fresh. Fresh herbs and most fruits are also banned, especially pears, plums, grapes and citrus fruits. For a while, it is better to abandon milk and dairy products.
Also excluded are any pickled products, smoked meats, spices and hot sauces, seasonings and canned goods. Any fast food is also prohibited.
Some types of cereals can irritate the intestinal mucosa, so you have to abandon barley, millet, corn, pearl barley and oatmeal.
Especially prohibited during treatment:
- fatty varieties of fish, poultry, meat;
- nuts, seeds;
- mushrooms and mushroom dishes;
- rich soups on fish and meat broth;
- pastry and pastry;
- alcohol and carbonated drinks;
- chocolate, cocoa, coffee;
- chips, snacks, salted crackers.
What can i eat
Regardless of whether the patient is in a hospital or at home treatment, while the condition is characterized as acute, his menu consists of the most sparing products. The diet provides for five meals a day in small portions (the so-called fractional diet), as well as the exclusion of certain foods and methods of their preparation (dishes should be steamed or cooked). Be sure to grind the ingredients with a blender or grind: the food consistency of mashed potatoes is faster and easier to digest and does not irritate the inflamed intestinal walls. In addition, the food should not be cold (below + 15 ° C) or too hot (above + 50 ° C).
The daily menu consists of the following products:
- no more than two chicken eggs can be eaten per day - soft-boiled or as a steam omelet;
- 150-200 g of mashed sweet fruits or berries (stewed in water or steamed, in the form of jelly or mousse - without added sugar);
- jelly from sweet berries (blueberries are especially useful), green and black tea, a decoction of rosehip berries and apple peels;
- 150-200 g fat-free cottage cheese (previously mashed);
- low-fat varieties of fish and meat in the form of steam cutlets, meatballs;
- watermelons: thanks to the diuretic action, the body is actively cleansed of toxins, makes up for fluid loss;
- white crackers, which contribute to the saturation of the body with carbohydrates, without causing fermentation in the intestines and stomach;
- light chicken stocks, grated vegetable soups;
- semolina, buckwheat, grated rice: porridge is boiled only in water, without the addition of sugar, oil, salt.
It is imperative to drink 2-4 liters of liquid daily, from permitted drinks, water and electrolyte solutions.
The recovery period after salmonellosis usually exceeds the duration of the disease itself. During the period of the disease, the infection causes damage to the body, in particular the gastrointestinal tract. This is especially reflected in the condition of patients with already existing chronic diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, since against the background of salmonellosis these diseases often worsen, causing the patient even more discomfort.
Compliance with the diet is the main requirement during the rehabilitation period after an illness, which lasts 3-4 weeks.
What to eat after salmonellosis? The menu for convalescents begins to expand gradually. In the first days of improvement, only the most sparing foods are present in the diet:
- non-fat sour milk (cottage cheese, kefir, yogurt without additives, fermented baked milk);
- lean types of fish and meat, steamed or boiled, souffle, meatballs, meatballs;
- beef or chicken liver in the form of soufflé and pastes;
- buckwheat, rice and semolina porridge, which can be cooked with the addition of a small amount of milk and salt, but without butter;
- baked apples, bananas, grated berries;
- quince puree;
- baked or boiled vegetables, mainly carrots, potatoes and zucchini;
- vegetable soups;
- yesterday's white bread and crackers from it.
Still need to drink as much fluid as possible - water, green tea, fruit drinks and jelly.
After 4-5 days, if the patient has normal stool and there are no complaints about well-being, you can begin to gradually introduce new products into the daily menu, on average, one new product every two days. You can start with butter, adding it to cereal in a small amount. Next, pay attention to fruits or vegetables, pasta, barley porridge. Heavy and unhealthy foods and drinks, such as smoked meats, lard, sausages, spicy seasonings, fast food, snacks and snacks, sweet soda water - all this can begin to be consumed no earlier than a month after the completion of the active stage of treatment.
Menu Features for Kids
Medical nutrition for children during the active stage of salmonellosis is based on the same principles as for adults. Excludes all foods and dishes that enhance the secretion of the digestive system, fermentation processes in the intestine.
Features of baby food for the period of salmonellosis require some adaptation of the menu to age-related needs. In the early days of the acute period, the child is expected to refuse to eat, so it is better to give him a lot of drink, for example, slightly sweetened tea and warm rice broth, cherry from cherry or blueberry. Young children are given only water. At this time, it is not recommended to use even white crackers, as they bind the tannin enzymes of tea and berries.
Further, food is built on the principles of diet No. 4 for 4-5 days. Dishes are prescribed liquid, semi-liquid, mashed, cooked on water or steamed. That is, food should be mechanically gentle and easily digestible. Carbohydrates, fats, and salts in your diet are limited; instead, focus on protein intake. It will be useful to introduce dairy products with lactobacilli into the diet, which help normalize the intestines. Whole milk must be discarded, and introduced into the diet by one of the latest products during the rehabilitation period.
For babies up to a year, emphasis should be placed on low-fat kefir and mixtures of Lactofidus, NAS sour-milk and acidophilic Baby.
As the manifestations of intoxication decrease, the child can gradually introduce low-fat cottage cheese, turkey, veal, beef in the form of meatballs, meatballs and steam souffles into the diet. Low-fat fish, porridges on the water, grated vegetable soups, soups with boiled noodles, crackers made of white bread are also allowed. In order to speed up the healing process, you must give children potatoes, carrots, apples - these products contain pectin, which binds water, absorbing toxins and bacterial residues in the intestines. In the acidic environment of the stomach, calcium, known for its anti-inflammatory property, is split off from pectin. Fruits and vegetables are allowed to be consumed only in boiled form, or steamed.
As a result of salmonellosis, children usually have difficulty digesting food, and fermentopathy appears, in which the absorption of food is disturbed. In this case, do not rush to diversify the child’s diet with fresh fruits, vegetables, juices for a period of 1 month.
In general, the child’s diet during the recovery period is somewhat expanded compared to the acute stage of the disease. Grated cereals with a small amount of salt are allowed on water or light broth: rice, semolina, buckwheat, oatmeal, as well as grated mucous soups on water or meat broth. Add grated vegetables, meatballs or minced meat to soups. The child is given crackers made of white bread and dry biscuit cookies as snacks.
Gradually begin to add 3-5 grams of butter to dishes. Low-fat beef, poultry and veal are allowed - steam cutlets, souffle, meatballs are prepared from minced meat. You can also eat grated boiled marine fish of low-fat variety. Casseroles are prepared from freshly grated cottage cheese, and after stabilization of the chair, it is eaten unprepared.
Other allowed products:
- dogwood (compotes, jelly);
- blackberry, blueberry;
- black and green tea;
- still mineral water.
Bran, seeds, nuts, legumes, hard-to-digest cereals (barley, corn), fried and hard-boiled eggs, sugar, sweets, honey, citrus fruits, mushrooms, chocolate, sausages, fatty meat and fish, greens, sour cream, fresh fruits and vegetables are also excluded during the rehabilitation period.
All dishes consumed during and after treatment of the disease undergo appropriate processing and are also crushed. The following are some recipes for foods that are allowed for patients.
Meat broth rice soup is made from lean poultry or meat. 100 ml of water are added to 300 ml of broth, 40 grams of rice is added to the broth and boiled until completely boiled. Next, the soup is rubbed on a sieve, slightly salted.
It is not recommended to eat pearl barley during salmonellosis, however, it is possible to prepare a healthy mucous soup from it.
For 40 grams of cereal, you need 650 ml of low-fat meat broth and 5 grams of butter. The cereals are sorted and washed, poured with liquid and boiled until soft. Filter the soup, remove the cereal from it. The resulting broth is brought to a boil by adding butter.
A simple recipe for meatballs with rice - take minced meat and rice for each 100 grams of minced meat about 20 grams of rice. The meat is rotated three times in a meat grinder, rice is sorted, washed, cooked until cooked. The cooled cereal is ground through a sieve and mixed with minced meat. The mixture can be slightly salted, and then it needs to be beaten off with a hammer for chops. They form balls from it and cook for a couple.
To prepare a diet soufflé from pollock, take pollock fillet, 30 ml of milk, 5 grams of wheat flour, 1 egg, a little vegetable oil. The prepared filet is thrice passed through a meat grinder. A white sauce is prepared from flour with milk in a frying pan (heat the flour, pour milk, stirring constantly, keep it on fire for 2-3 minutes). Chilled sauce is salted, added to fish, egg yolk is put there, the mixture is mixed well. Beat the whisk until a strong foam and injected into the fish mass, mixing a little. The mixture is put in a greased mold and steamed.
During the recovery period, the patient can be pleased with a simple curd dessert - a curd souffle with blueberry jelly. For it, you will need 120 grams of cottage cheese, 10 grams of semolina, 10 grams of butter, 15 grams of sugar, 1 egg, 100 grams of blueberries, 5 grams of starch.
Semolina is cooked until cooked, cooled. Grated cottage cheese is combined with semolina, add the yolk, sugar and melted butter. The mass is rubbed onto a sieve, pre-beaten protein is introduced, kneaded and spread the souffle into a steam cooking dish. Blueberry jelly is cooked with potato starch. Ready hot jelly is poured over the souffle before serving.
Answers to popular questions
How to neutralize eggs infected with salmonella?
Chicken eggs and eggs of other birds - the most popular product that is in every home. At the same time, it is one of the main sources of salmonellosis, especially raw and insufficiently processed eggs. To exclude possible infection, using eggs for food, you need to remember some rules.
You can’t buy eggs from your hands, in natural markets, and you can’t take eggs with shells stained with droppings and blood. After contact with the shell, wash your hands. In the refrigerator itself, eggs are stored on a separate shelf, and preferably in a separate, closed container.
If the bacterium is present only on the shell, this will be enough to neutralize the bacteria. However, if microorganisms penetrated through the shell inside, it becomes more difficult to disinfect the egg - for this you need to process the product in the appropriate temperature regime. Deep freezing will not help to avoid salmonellosis - the bacterium remains viable at sub-zero temperatures throughout the year. If you cook an egg at a temperature of 55 degrees Celsius, the cooking process will drag on for an hour and a half or two. You need to boil eggs in water at a temperature of 70 degrees and above, for 12-15 minutes. The use of raw eggs of any bird is extremely dangerous precisely because of the threat of infection, so in order not to get sick, you should not get carried away with dishes and sauces with raw eggs, especially in the summer.
It is almost impossible to achieve a full recovery and recovery from the disease without observing the dietary rules of nutrition. The diet for salmonellosis is aimed at suppressing the manifestation of the symptoms of the disease and accelerating the onset of recovery.
Specialty: therapist, nephrologist.
Total experience: 18 years.
Place of work: Novorossiysk, medical center "Nefros".
Education: 1994-2000 Stavropol State Medical Academy.
- 2014 - "Therapy" full-time continuing education courses on the basis of the Kuban State Medical University.
- 2014 - "Nephrology" full-time continuing education courses on the basis of GBOUVPO "Stavropol State Medical University".