Diseases

Treatment of toxoplasmosis

Treatment of toxoplasmosis is a complex of various measures aimed at eliminating the pathogen causing the pathology from the human body or from the body of an animal. In the initial stages, toxoplasmosis may not manifest itself at all in healthy adults, but serious problems may begin in children, pregnant women and immunocompromised patients.

Toxoplasmosis should be prevented and treated not only when the symptoms have already begun to appear, but also during the asymptomatic stage of the pathology. In modern pharmacology, there are many drugs that help to effectively deal with parasites in the human body. However, anti-toxoplasmosis can be effectively applied and popular recipes.

Is a cure possible?

Toxoplasmosis is not always required to be treated. It is almost impossible to permanently get rid of Toxoplasma in the blood, the causative agent of the disease, along with the antibodies to it, can be in the human body for life.

Toxoplasmosis can be completely cured only during therapy during the first few days after infection. When this time passes, Toxoplasma is converted into drug-resistant cysts. If a person is diagnosed with toxoplasmosis, but he does not have external manifestations of the disease, there is no need to treat the disease.

For the treatment of acute toxoplasmosis, chemotherapeutic and antibacterial agents are prescribed that adversely affect the patient's immunity. With the appointment of such drugs in the absence of clinical manifestations can exacerbate the pathology.

The goal of therapy for toxoplasmosis is not the complete disposal of the body from toxoplasma. Doctors in the appointment of treatment tend to prevent severe disease and subsequent damage to internal organs. That is why the therapy of this pathology is prescribed exclusively for the severe symptoms of the disease, for lesions of the heart, nervous system, lungs, other organs and systems in combination with the patient’s immunodeficiency states.

Medication for toxoplasmosis

So, therapy of immunocompetent patients with toxoplasmosis is not carried out. If the disease is severe or the patients are immunocompromised, they are prescribed medication for 2 to 4 weeks.

Among therapeutic treatment regimens, those in which antiparasitic and antibacterial agents are used predominate. Most often, first-line therapy for toxoplasmosis includes a combination of pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine or pyrimethamine and clindamycin. As alternatives, treatment regimens that include pyrimethamine and spiramycin or pyrimethamine and atovaquone are considered. When treating pregnant women, rovamycin is often used. All treatment is prescribed after the qualitative diagnosis of pathology.

In addition to the main therapy, physicians for toxoplasmosis often prescribe patients and drugs containing folic acid, as well as immunomodulators (Timogen, Taktivin and others), antihistamines (Ketotifen, Suprastin and others), prebiotics, probiotics to restore normal intestinal microflora.

Drugs used in the treatment of toxoplasmosis
Drug namePharmacological groupThe purpose and effect of the drug
PyrimethamineAntimicrobial and antiparasitic agents. Medicines for the treatment of protozoal infections. Antimalarial drugsUsed to treat toxoplasmosis in adult patients with the acute phase of the disease. Prohibited use during pregnancy and in children up to 2 years.
SulfadiazineAntimicrobial drugIt is prescribed for toxoplasmosis in adult patients (children after 3 years), is prohibited during pregnancy, the form of release - tablets for oral administration.
ClindamycinBroad-spectrum antibioticIt is used for the treatment of toxoplasmosis in adults and children from 3 years in the form of intramuscular injections. The frequency of injections is twice a day. When the tablet form of the drug is used up to 4 times per day.
PrinidazoleHormonal drugsIt is prescribed for ocular toxoplasmosis in adults, children after 12 years. Taking the drug is not recommended for pregnant women.
SpiramycinAntibacterial agentUsed for the treatment of toxoplasmosis in adult patients, the form of release - tablets and solutions for injection. Can be used for the treatment of pathology in pregnant women.
DoxycyclineBroad-spectrum antibioticAntibacterial therapy toxoplasmosis is a direct indication for the use of the drug. Can be used in children after 8 years, adults. In pregnancy, the use is prohibited.
MetronidazoleBroad spectrum antibacterial drugAppointed with toxoplasmosis in combination with folic acid for 7 days to avoid problems with the brain.
AtovakvonAntiprotozoalIt helps with all types of toxoplasmosis. It is used in the latent course of the disease, in patients with HIV status. The latent form is characterized by the formation of the causative agent of cysts in human tissues that are not destroyed by conventional preparations. The tool helps to kill cysts without the occurrence of side effects.
RovamycinAntimicrobial and antiparasitic agents. Antibiotics. MacrolidesThe most effective remedy for the treatment of Toxoplasma. It has a tablet and injectable release form. The active substance spiramycin. It is used even when carrying a fetus, but is not recommended during lactation.
TactivinImmunomodulatory agentIt is used in adult patients with immunodeficiency states that occur during infectious, septic, purulent processes, recurrent ophthalmic herpes (repeated occurrence of a viral disease in the eye tissues), psoriasis and other diseases.
SuprastinAntihistamines for systemic useIt is used to eliminate the manifestations of seasonal and year-round allergic attacks, with allergies caused by therapy with other drugs.

Traditional medicine

After the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis and the appointment of effective medicines, you can try to add to the scheme of therapy and well-known folk drugs, if your doctor does not object to this. Among the most popular folk remedies against toxoplasmosis are the following:

  1. Collection of medicinal plants - elecampane, calendula flowers, eucalyptus, aspen bark, calamus roots. The components are ground to a powder, stirred, then boiled for 1 hour. The infusion is filtered and used inside for 30-40 milliliters three times a day.
  2. Tincture of the above medicinal plants. Herbs are also crushed and mixed exactly, but they are already poured with medical alcohol, they infuse for 72 hours. After that, the alcohol tincture can be applied in the form of an aqueous solution of 5-6 ml of the product in a glass of liquid for 5 days.
  3. Cherry broth. Crushed cherry twigs are poured with cold water, simmered for 30 minutes, cooled and filtered. Ready broth is applied daily before meals of 50 milliliters for 1 month.
  4. Garlic milk. To prepare the medicine, 2 peeled garlic cloves are ground and poured with warm milk, then the mixture is boiled over low heat for 20 minutes. The medicine is taken in several sips daily before meals for 10 days.
  5. Herbal collection - chamomile, gentian and buckthorn roots, wormwood, tansy. All ingredients in equal parts are ground and mixed, the dry powder is poured boiling water, infused and drunk in the morning on an empty stomach in several sips.
  6. Pumpkin seeds with milk. Crushed dried peeled pumpkin seeds pour a glass of warm milk. They need to insist a little and drink every morning on an empty stomach before breakfast. You can apply separately and pumpkin seeds on an empty stomach, if it is not possible to prepare a milk mixture.
  7. Horseradish root with sour cream. The root must be cleaned and grated, then mixed with sour cream and used three times a day as a sauce for any meal. The effectiveness of treatment is usually noticeable already 3 days after the start of administration of horseradish.

Methods of treatment during pregnancy

Toxoplasmosis is absolutely safe for adults and healthy organisms. However, if a woman is pregnant and a new life is formed in her body, toxoplasmosis can cause significant harm.

Toxoplasma, bypassing the placental barrier, can affect the developing fetus and cause its intrauterine death. In the presence of toxoplasmosis before pregnancy in a woman, she should first cure the disease, and only then plan for motherhood. If you become infected with a disease during pregnancy, treatment must be completed before delivery.

In the first trimester of pregnancy, Rovamycin may be used to treat toxoplasmosis. In the second trimester of pregnancy to this drug should be added funds containing folic acid. After 36 weeks gestation, the disease is treated again with pure Rowamycin. Weekly throughout the entire period of childbearing a woman with toxoplasmosis should undergo control tests.

Typically, toxoplasmosis in pregnant women is asymptomatic, which requires constant monitoring of the presence of the pathogen in the body using laboratory tests. The most dangerous for the fetus are forms of mother's toxoplasmosis, which are characterized by an acute course of the active phase and that have arisen over the course of six months before the conception of the child. In the case of a primary infection of a pregnant woman, the risk of miscarriage, premature birth, stillbirth, and the birth of an infected baby increases sharply. Also, it is the primary infection with Toxoplasma that leads to the formation of a congenital disease in the newborn. According to statistics, this occurs in 1 out of 3500 births of children. By the time of intrauterine infection of a child are distinguished:

  • chronic pathology - a dangerous phenomenon with infection in the first trimester, in which there are malformations of the brain (hydrocephalus, atrophy, deformation of the ventricles of the brain), organs of vision (coloboma, anophthalmia, retinal atrophy) and other systems;
  • subacute course occurring in the 2nd trimester and manifested by active forms of encephalitis, meningoencephalitis in combination with the pathologies of the organs of vision (focal necrosis, uveitis, chorioretinitis);
  • acute infection with infection in the 3rd trimester of pregnancy with fever, maculopapular rash, jaundice, anemia, hepatosplenomegaly, pneumonia, myocarditis, various intestinal lesions.

Sometimes infectious severity can pass on their own. Such patients feel symptoms of general intoxication, they have signs of lesions in the central nervous system and organs of vision. In the absence of a long-term invasion, irreversible changes of a persistent nature can persist, for example, the presence of calcifications in the brain or microcephaly, chorioretinal scars, partial dysfunction of the optic nerve. All of the above are residual symptoms of pathology.

With an age criterion of 10–12 years, a child may begin a subclinical form of the disease, causing a delay in the development of mental or physical health.

The main objectives of the treatment of acute toxoplasmosis in pregnant women are the rehabilitation of the pathology of the expectant mother and the prevention of the congenital form of the disease in the fetus. After 16 weeks of gestation, Spiramycin is prescribed to a woman in a strictly defined by the specialist dosage, which on an individual basis, a woman should take 4-6 weeks or 10 days. At the same time, immunotherapy using immunoglobulin directed against T. Gondii is carried out simultaneously (and also at 12-13 weeks of pregnancy separately). Immunoglobulin is used in conjunction with antihistamines that are permitted when carrying a fetus. The treatment regimen is always individual and is prescribed by the attending physician after reviewing the patient's history and the results of diagnostic tests.

To prevent disease in pregnant women, food, especially meat and milk, must be carefully processed, personal hygiene rules must be observed, and places where cats can leave their feces should be avoided. Congenital toxoplasmosis can only be prevented by timely examination and treatment of pregnant women for this disease.

Treatment of toxoplasmosis in children

Pathology has no age characteristics of the course, if we are not talking about the prenatal infection of a child. Only congenital toxoplasmosis has features of the course.

In 60% of cases, children’s toxoplasmosis is asymptomatic and does not provoke any changes in the body’s work. Such a course of pathology does not require therapy and passes on its own within a few weeks. Very rarely, children may experience clinical manifestations of the disease with an acute or chronic course. This is more characteristic of children with immunodeficiency states who receive chemotherapy or hormone treatment. The clinical course of the disease is capable of leaving behind the effects on the internal organs of the child. After the child recovers, he is a healthy carrier of the pathogen, not infectious to others. However, any course of the disease with clinical symptoms requires treatment.

The acute stage of childhood toxoplasmosis requires adherence to bed rest. In case of congenital pathology, doctors use Pyrimethamine and Sulfadiazine to treat children. At the same time for newborns and infants, treatment regimens are always assigned individually. With acquired toxoplasmosis, children are prescribed Biseptol.

Ways to treat the chronic form

In the treatment of chronic toxoplasmosis, antimalarial and antibacterial drugs are effective for long-term therapy (from 14 days to 2-3 months). Shorter treatment is applicable to the acute form of pathology. For chronic disease, it is better to use immunostimulatory drugs in combination with antihistamines, toxoplasmin and ultraviolet radiation. At the same time, immunostimulants perfectly affect the body's defense system and strengthen the immune system.

The effective immunomodulators used in the complex treatment of chronic toxoplasmosis include Cycloferon, Licopid, Timogen, Taktivin. Suprastin, Diazolin, Tavegil with additional tonic effect on the body will be good antiallergic agents.

For the introduction of toxoplasmin, you must first carry out 3 tests for allergies through the introduction into the body of micro-doses of the active substance.

After a day, get the result of such samples. In the absence of an allergic reaction, the administration of a concentrated preparation is initiated. Repeat through the day in 4 different points of the body. After administration of toxoplasmin, a reaction occurs that is to be controlled.With its decrease, the procedure for administering the drug is repeated, but it is already done for 10 points in the body. Contraindications for such treatment are any diseases related to human visual function.

Ultraviolet irradiation is also carried out metered, starting with a quarter of the quantity needed by the patient. Every day, the dosage is doubled and the presence of skin reactions is controlled.

Acute treatment regimens

In the acute form of pathology, chemotherapeutic drugs, for example, antimalarial drugs, detrimental effects on any parasites, demonstrate efficacy. Toxoplasmosis is used in children and adults. On the eve of treatment, it is necessary to strictly determine the dosage of the doctor, or at least familiarize yourself with the instructions for the preparation, since the dosage will differ at different ages. It is also important to be sure to familiarize yourself with the contraindications, side effects and the maximum allowable daily dose of the drug used.

Usually, acute toxoplasmosis is treated with Hloridin (Daraprim), Sulfadiazin, Fansidar in combination with Spiramycin or Aminoquinol. The regimen should be prescribed individually by the attending physician, depending on many factors associated with the pathology.

During therapy with the above drugs, it is necessary to constantly monitor the state of the blood. So that bone marrow tissue cells can be updated in a timely manner under the influence of drugs, it is necessary to use folic acid preparations along with treatment. Sometimes in combination with the main treatment requires the use of antibacterial agents from the groups of tetracyclines or sulfonamides, which inhibit the pathogenic microflora.

Duration of treatment

In most cases of the development of toxoplasmosis in an adult healthy person, he will not need treatment, since immunity is able to overcome this type of infection on its own. The need to treat toxoplasmosis occurs during pregnancy, in children with a congenital form of the pathology, or if the adult for some reason weakens the immune system.

The duration of therapy may vary in the above cases very strongly, on average, it is 2-4 weeks, since it depends on the initial causes of the development of acute toxoplasmosis. In the case of a congenital form, life-long treatment is possible, in other cases, depending on the results of diagnosis, the duration of the course of therapy will be chosen by the attending physician.

Who to contact

If the symptoms of the disease are detected, the patient may contact the family doctor, who, after conducting a primary examination and suspecting toxoplasmosis, will refer the patient for further observation to an infectious disease doctor or parasitologist. A narrow specialist involved in parasitic infections will prescribe diagnostic procedures and, based on their results, will be able to diagnose and determine the most effective treatment regimen for a particular patient.

Article author:
Furmanova Elena Alexandrovna

Specialty: pediatrician, infectious diseases specialist, allergist-immunologist.

Total experience: 7 years.

Education: 2010, SSMU, pediatric, pediatrics.

Experience infectious diseases more than 3 years.

He has a patent on the topic “A method for predicting the high risk of the formation of a chronic pathology of the adeno-tonsillar system in frequently ill children”. As well as the author of publications in the journals of the Higher Attestation Commission.

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Watch the video: Live imaging of Toxoplasma parasites invading human cells (February 2020).

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