Treatment of tracheitis is a set of measures aimed at overcoming the causes of the disease, alleviating and eliminating its symptoms using medicinal, home and other methods.
Tracheitis is a pathology with inflammation of the mucous membrane of the trachea, which often occurs as an accompanying with tonsillitis, flu, colds, SARS and much less often occurs as an independent nosology. The causative agents of tracheitis can be staphylococcal, streptococcal bacteria, hemophilus bacillus, and various viruses that penetrate the mucous membrane of the affected organ.
Tracheitis without complications can be treated at home, the disease responds well to therapy and requires hospitalization only if there are health-threatening complications manifested by attacks of asthma, uncontrolled fever, asthmatic manifestations and other symptoms indicating an inflammatory process that spreads to the lungs or bronchi.
Medicines for different types of tracheitis
With a proven bacterial cause of tracheitis, specific antimicrobial therapy is carried out. To eliminate the cause of the pathology, antibacterial agents with a wide spectrum of action are used, mainly in the form of aerosols or in tablet form. To this end, it is most often recommended to take drugs from the group of protected semi-synthetic penicillins.
Acute viral tracheitis has no specific treatment, with the exception of anti-influenza drugs for influenza epidemics. With the allergic nature of the disease, antihistamines are the main therapy.
Anti-inflammatory medications are needed for tracheitis to relieve inflammation in the respiratory tract area. Such drugs reduce the severity of symptoms due to anti-inflammatory and antihistamine action. Often, for this purpose, the drug Erespal is used, which has a positive effect not only on reducing inflammation, but also on the process of stopping the cough syndrome. This drug has antiallergic properties, which helps to prevent spasms in the trachea and bronchi. Erespal is used in the treatment of adults and children. Its effect is based on relaxing the muscles of the bronchial tree, reducing the volume of mucus and the frequency of coughing attacks. The drug is presented in liquid and tablet form, and is applied in courses from 10 to 14 days.
Another popular anti-inflammatory agent that can be used for tracheitis is the drug Tantum Verde, produced both in tablets and in spray form. It has a pleasant mint smell. In addition, it has a local anesthetic and antiseptic effect. The treatment Tantum Verde usually lasts up to 5 days and is not recommended for use in children under 6 years of age.
The list of anti-inflammatory drugs used for tracheitis is very wide today. In addition to those named Erespal and Tantum Verde, doctors sometimes prescribe:
Antiviral drugs for tracheitis are prescribed if the causative agent of the disease is an influenza virus during a confirmed flu epidemic. These include drugs - inhibitors of neurominidase, namely Oseltamivir, Tamiflu. These drugs selectively act on the flu virus and destroy it.
For other tracheitis, the causative agents of which are viruses of acute respiratory diseases, there is no specific antiviral treatment. However, in case of illness in certain groups of individuals, which include immunocompromised patients with a weakened immune response, as well as of frequently ill children, groups of immunomodulators with the ability to activate their own immunity are used in the treatment. Such drugs destroy pathogens, increase immunity resistance. Antivirals can even be used by children from birth and pregnant women.
Among the drugs in this group that can be effectively used for children under 2 years of age, doctors distinguish the following drugs:
- candles Viferon;
- drops Kipferon, Interferon, Grippferon;
- tablets Ergoferon, Anaferon.
The use of existing antiviral drugs, including Arbidol, rimantadine, kogatel, ingavirin, cytovir is not currently used, due to the lack of evidence base of antiviral activity.
In all other cases, symptomatic drugs with antipyretic, anti-edematous, analgesic, anti-exudative actions are used.
Antibiotics for tracheitis are prescribed only after a comprehensive diagnosis of the patient and the bacterial nature of the disease. It is not recommended to engage in self-treatment with the use of antibacterial agents, as this can easily provoke negative health effects.
Usually, tracheitis prescribes drugs of the penicillin group of macrolides and cephalosporins of the last generation, which have a wide range of effects on the cause of the pathology. The most common antibacterial drugs prescribed for tracheitis from various groups of drugs include:
Augmentin, Amoxiclav and Amoxicillin are prescribed for the pathology under consideration quite often. These drugs are in tablet form. Their reception period usually does not exceed 7-10 days, depending on the severity of the tracheitis. If you are allergic to the penicillin group of antibiotics, cephalosporins or macrolides are recommended for patients. These groups of antibacterial agents are usually represented in both tablet and injectable forms. Convenience is that the reception of these funds is needed only 1 time per day.
Among macrolide drugs, Sumamed enjoys a rather high popularity with tracheitis. It is prescribed in the case of an acute form of the disease, accompanied by such complications as otitis media, bronchitis, and so on. It is enough to use this antibiotic once a day and after 3 days the patient will feel a noticeable improvement in his condition. Sumamed is sold in the form of a suspension, tablets or capsules. For children with tracheitis, the most convenient form of the antibiotic is a powder for the preparation of a suspension for oral administration.
As antibiotics for tracheitis, agents are used not only in tablet form, but also in inhalation form. Thus, the anti-bacterial spray Bioparox is a very popular treatment. It contains fusafungin, which removes the inflammatory response and destroys staphylococcal and streptococcal infection. The tool in the set has 2 nozzles that can be used for irrigation and the nose and throat.
When treating tracheitis with antibacterial drugs in the human body, dysbacteriosis and antibiotic-associated diarrhea can develop. To prevent such a reaction, it is recommended to take probiotics and fresh dairy products in parallel with antibiotics.
Antihistamines for tracheitis are designed to eliminate allergic reactions, remove puffiness from the mucous membranes of the respiratory tract, eliminate burning and itching. Also, antihistamines should be used to prevent the development of broncho-obstructive syndrome and false croup in the acute edematous period of inflammation.
Antihistamine medications help to suppress cough syndrome in tracheitis, caused by all sorts of irritants. Such drugs are also very useful for patients with chronic diseases.
Antihistamines must be prescribed to those people in whom the tracheitis has an allergic basis and is caused by the influence of an allergen on the body. The most popular anti-allergic properties of tracheitis include:
For children up to the age of six, antihistamines are mandatory in the treatment of tracheitis, since swelling of the tracheal mucosa in this case worsens breathing and spasms the organ. Antihistamines are used with tracheitis always for 5-7 days from the onset of the disease.
The main method of treatment of tracheitis is inhalation. Drugs can penetrate deeply into the affected organ, settle on the mucous membrane and affect the edema, improve breathing, spasm (eliminate it), and soothe the respiratory tract.
In modern medicine, there are three types of inhalation - compressor, ultrasound and steam. Steam inhalation can be done in the absence of hyperthermia from the age of six. Essential oils, dried herbs, soda and iodine are usually added to hot water to make a steam bath.
Nebulizer inhalations of compressor and ultrasonic action are excellent for young children from birth, pregnant women and adults with hyperthermia up to 38 degrees. Nebulizer solutions are prepared on the basis of saline, mineral water, using expectorant, antibacterial or hormonal preparations. The duration of inhalation with a nebulizer is 5-15 minutes, it is carried out 2-3 times a day. After each procedure, you can not take food and water, and go out for an hour and a half.
Drug mixtures for nebulizers are most often prepared on the basis of a physiological solution, adding to it medical preparations with a specific effect on the symptom or cause of the disease. Before using drugs for the nebulizer, it is important to ensure that the patient is not allergic to the drugs used in the solution for inhalation.
For the preparation of solutions most often with tracheitis, doctors prescribe the following drugs:
- Rotocan for use thrice daily;
- ACC Injection for double use per day;
- alcohol tincture of eucalyptus for four times a day;
- Malavit for triple daily use.
In addition to these, there are other drugs that can have a therapeutic effect with nebulizing inhalation in the case of tracheitis.
Homeopathy is used to neutralize residual effects of tracheitis and in the treatment of the chronic form of the disease. The main remedies used in this treatment are:
- Pulsatilla This drug has a diverse spectrum of effects on the human body, it is often used as the basis of anti-inflammatory treatment for bronchitis with dry cough, asthma, pneumonia. Take the drug in diluted form. The dose in each case should be prescribed by a specialist.
- Nux Vomica. On the third of its composition consists of ethyl alcohol, the rest of the main component of the drug is the "vomit" - chilibuchi seeds. The tool helps to eliminate the common cold, especially at the onset of the pathological condition, and is also highly effective for dry cough.
- Aconite and Aconite plus in granules. Means on the basis of the plant of the same name, which helps to eliminate the staccato dry cough and painful sensations that may occur. The indication for the use of this drug is an infection in the upper respiratory tract, laryngitis (inflammation of the larynx). Among the contraindications to the remedy, children are under the age of 5 years and pregnancy.
- Bryony. This drug fights well with any kind of cough. Use of the drug is not recommended for children or adults without a doctor's prescription. This tool has another form of release - the ointment, which perfectly treats the runny nose in people since birth.
- Drosera. The tool helps to eliminate roughness and dryness in the larynx, helps fight bouts of obsessive strong cough.
- Belladonna. Perfectly fights dryness of mucous membranes in the airways and pharynx.
- Hepar Sulfur, Kalium Bichromicum, Arsenicum Album, Aralia Razomosa, Helidonium are complex drugs that are used by homeopaths to eliminate a huge list of pathologies and symptoms, including the phenomena of tracheitis.
Usually, homeopathic treatment takes a long time. In order not to start the course of the disease and prevent the occurrence of complications, it is always important to consult a doctor before treatment.
Physiotherapy for tracheitis
When considering the pathogenesis of tracheitis, edema and inflammation of the mucous membranes of the trachea and the respiratory tract organs are detected. Physiotherapy is used to normalize blood circulation in the trachea zone, absorbing and anti-inflammatory effects, improve expectoration and prevent bronchial pathology. Physiotherapy treatment significantly accelerates the resolution of the pathology without complications.
In the acute period of tracheitis, patients are shown to use UHF-therapy for the trachea zone, taking into account the longitudinal technique for 5-10 minutes for 3-5 days, inhalations with the help of the mineral water Borzhomi or Krasnousolskaya No. 12 for 5-15 minutes twice a day. day for 5-7 days, ultraviolet radiation (UV) projection of the trachea behind and in front for 5-6 days.
In the subacute stage of tracheitis, patients are prescribed such physiotherapeutic procedures as:
- EVT-therapy, which implies the use of a magnetic field with ultra-high frequency, on the projection of the trachea for 8-15 minutes for 6-10 days.
- IKV-therapy based on the use of an alternating magnetic field with a high frequency, causing eddy currents in the tissues, which are converted into heat, to the projection of the trachea for 10-15 minutes for 6-10 days.
- Electrophoresis with two-percent solutions of ZnSO4, MgSO4 or KI on the projection of the trachea using a transverse technique of 8-15 minutes daily for up to 10 days.
- Inductophoresis, which is a sequential use of inductothermy and electrophoresis on the trachea using the transverse technique, 6-10 minutes daily for 6-8 days.
- SMT therapy based on the influence of sinusoidal modulated currents on the trachea region in the transverse type, carried out up to 10 days.
- SMT-phoresis with 2% MgSO4, aminophylline or ZnSO4 solutions per thorax 5-7 minutes daily for 10 days.
- UFD projections of the trachea from the back and front of the fields daily for 5-6 days.
- Infrared irradiation of the trachea with the Minin lamp with light heat for 8–15 minutes for 5 days.
- Stable-contact laser therapy from 2 to 5 minutes daily for 6-8 days.
When the period of tracheitis resolves, physiotherapy is also commonly used as anchoring treatment. At this point, patients are shown the use of electrophoresis, UV-projection and aeroionotherapy.
Recipes of traditional medicine for tracheitis
Use of inhalation
The effectiveness of inhalation with tracheitis is due to a direct effect on the affected trachea of the drug, dissolved in a couple, fine dispersion, which helps the active substances to penetrate deep into the tissues, moistening the mucous membrane with the help of steam, which facilitates the process of sputum discharge.
Means of traditional medicine during inhalation demonstrate no less effective than pharmacological agents for this purpose. It is only important to choose and prepare the recipe for a particular disease.
Honey inhalations for respiratory diseases have also found wide application, given the lack of allergy to bee products. To prepare such a composition, you need to dissolve a tablespoon of any flower honey, 2 tablespoons of sea salt and a teaspoon of soda in a liter of boiling water. During the dissolution of the ingredients of the composition in boiling water, he manages to cool slightly, which is necessary in order to avoid steam burns of mucous membranes. On the day you need to make 3 approaches to such inhalation, so that the tracheitis is much faster.
With a dry, agonizing, obsessive cough, when tracheitis is inhaled, they use baking soda. Soda is able to eliminate coughing, relieve inflammation and remove sputum. A tablespoon of soda is dissolved in a glass of boiling water, the composition cools down for 5 minutes and inhalation can be performed for 10 minutes. Three repetitions throughout the day will help to forget about tracheitis much faster.
The ideal base for inhalation solutions for tracheitis is eucalyptus. To prepare 4 cups of water, add 2 tablespoons of dry herbs and boil over low heat, and boil for 5 minutes after boiling. Then, 25 drops of iodine are dripped into the finished formulation. The patient’s head is covered with a towel and he must breathe with the mixture for 15 minutes twice a day.
Specialists in traditional medicine recommend the use of warming compresses for patients with tracheitis daily for an hour before night sleep. Keep the compress you need 20 minutes only on the chest, and in any case not to move it to the neck where the thyroid gland is located.
Among the recipes for effective compresses can be identified:
- Compress of three drops of eucalyptus oil, a tablespoon of honey, a tablespoon of dry mustard, three drops of fir oil and 20 grams of sunflower oil, as well as boiled potatoes. The root crop is boiled and softened together with vegetable oil, the remaining ingredients are mixed together, and then with softened potatoes, laid out on parchment or foil and superimposed on the breast to the patient. From above a compress it is necessary to wrap up a woolen scarf.
- A warming compress made of honey and three drops of eucalyptus or fir oil. Honey is well mixed with oils, and then, before going to bed, it is rubbed into the patient’s chest, covered with a film and wrapped.
- Compress pure boiled potatoes in their skins. Tubers soften, wrapped in cheesecloth and in the form of a compress are applied to the chest to cool.
- Mustard plasters on the chest, applied through gauze. They can be replaced with mustard ointment from a pharmacy or dry mustard powder diluted in water.
If a patient with tracheitis has hyperthermia, then warming compresses are not applied until the body temperature is normalized to 36.8 degrees.
Help at home
What to do with cough and sputum
Mustard wraps, inhalations over steam, and ordinary mustard plasters on the chest or trachea region are most effective at coughing for tracheitis. If the disease has affected the infant, then in this case it is important to apply rubbing the sternum with the help of any irritating ointments from the pharmacy. Rubbing is important to spend at least 3 times a day for 5-6 days.
Since the mucous membranes of the trachea, larynx, bronchi and pharynx are cleared of phlegm with the help of cough in the case of tracheitis. The best way to help the patient is to soften the cough and eliminate unpleasant feelings after it. Phytotherapeutic agents and anesthetics are used for this. The complex of such measures at home treatment will help to cope with the consequences of taking heavy drugs and eliminate the symptoms of tracheitis.
How to help with shortness of breath
Dyspnea is the most disturbing symptom of tracheitis, which often indicates the occurrence of bronchitis or pneumonia as a complication of pathology.
To relieve shortness of breath with tracheitis at home, you can use the medication according to the Siberian prescription. For its preparation you will need 10 lemons, a spoon of honey, 10 cloves of garlic, 4 tablespoons of sea buckthorn oil. The juice from the lemons is squeezed out, and the garlic is crushed, the ingredients are interconnected and filled with sea buckthorn oil. Then the tool is mixed with honey and infused for 10 days in the dark. After that, the medicine is filtered and you need to take 2 tablespoons every day, slowly dissolving. To cure tracheitis and shortness of breath with it, you need to use the medicine for 2 months.
Patients with tracheitis strongly complain about scratching and scratching in the throat area, which sometimes endure unbearably long. To mitigate such manifestations of the disease, you can use rinsing with the use of folk remedies.
For rinsing the throat when tracheitis is perfect salt water, for the preparation of which for 1 cup of water you must add 0.5 teaspoon of sea salt or table salt. You can also boil a tablespoon of sage in a glass of water, cool the broth to 40 degrees, strain and use to rinse. You can insist in a glass of boiling water a tablespoon of dried eucalyptus leaves, and after cooling, strain and apply to rinse. A tablespoon of alcohol calendula, dissolved in a glass of water, is also perfect for effectively rinsing the affected throat. You can gargle with essential oils (2-3 drops), dissolved in a glass of water, or with a mixture of beet juice and water in equal proportions with the addition of a teaspoon of honey.
It is impossible to perform rinsing more than 3-4 times per day, as too much effect of rinse solutions may also dry out the mucous and cause its irritation.
How to put mustard plasters with tracheitis
The traditional distracting way to stop coughing with tracheitis is mustard plasters. Skin receptors with their help are irritated, which reduces the intensity and frequency of cough syndrome. Mustard contains volatile production, essential oils, dilating blood vessels and thereby activating blood flow to the area of imposing mustard plaster. This increases the reflex tone, stimulates the release of adrenaline and noradrenaline, which leads to an increase in the body's defenses.
Mustard is required to apply simultaneously on the chest and back area near the jugular cavity (center of the sternum). Also effective is the putting of mustard plasters on the calves. You must not use mustard plasters in the region of the heart, thyroid gland, or the middle of the spine on the back. The maximum they can affect in children up to 10 minutes, and in adults up to 20.
Also, it is absolutely impossible to use mustard plasters at elevated body temperature. However, when hyperthermia has returned to normal, this remedy may well replace many expensive drugs aimed at thinning sputum and suppressing cough syndrome.
The specifics of the fight against the disease in children
To treat tracheitis in a child must be comprehensive. The disease in childhood is mainly viral, therefore, symptomatic drugs are used mainly in the treatment. And only for weakened children, for various reasons, it is recommended to add interferon preparations to the treatment in order to activate their own immunity. During therapy, it is very important to stop nighttime coughing attacks, which often cause reflex vomiting. After that, the treatment proceeds to activate the body's protective properties and speed up the detoxification process, because the sooner the virus is released, the faster the child will recover.
When coughing, children use antitussive drugs in the form of syrups, prescribed by a doctor in the context of the nature of the productivity of cough. Antibiotics for children with tracheitis are prescribed, as well as adults, only if the disease is bacterial in nature, is difficult, there are prerequisites for chronic process or the development of complications. Very useful for children with tracheitis inhalation, which should be carried out twice a day. Distracting procedures are also used to relieve edema from the upper respiratory tract, in the form of rubbing of limbs or chest, when the body temperature returns to normal. It is also important to take care of a sufficient drinking regime for the child. It is best to give vitamin fruit drinks and warm teas.
Usually tracheitis in children lasts no more than 14 days, so in order to avoid complications, it is important to immediately consult a doctor when the first symptoms of the disease in a baby.
How to be treated during pregnancy and breastfeeding
Therapy of tracheitis during pregnancy and during breastfeeding requires certain adherence to the rules.
At the first stage it is important to determine the cause of the pathology in a pregnant woman. When the viral nature of the disease, you can assign a sparing immunomodulatory therapy, abundant alkaline drinking, dosed inhalation and bed rest. Mustard and warming are contraindicated during pregnancy, as well as grinding, which also can not be done with breastfeeding.
For the treatment of bacterial tracheitis during pregnancy and breastfeeding, the prescription of relatively safe antibacterial drugs from the group of semi-synthetic penicillins, macrolides and cephalosporins is required. However, in the first trimester of pregnancy, it is not recommended to prescribe such drugs to pregnant women, as they can provoke embryotoxic effects on the fetus.
In any case, tracheitis therapy during pregnancy and breastfeeding should be under strict medical supervision in order not to harm either the mother or the unborn baby.
Duration of treatment
No one can unequivocally tell how long the treatment of tracheitis will last, because the course and duration of this pathology is largely determined by the form of the disease, its severity, the type of virus or bacteria that provoke the disease in each case, the patient's immune system and treatment methods.
Tracheitis is a rather tricky disease, since all pathologies of the human respiratory tract can be treated quite hard. In terms of prognosis, acute tracheitis is more favorable, because it immediately forces the patient to begin therapy because of severe symptoms. Therefore, the acute form of the disease can actually be completely cured in 10-14 days. Regarding chronic tracheitis, it is worth noting that its protracted form will require about a month of drug therapy.
Which doctor to contact
If you have symptoms of tracheitis, it is important to consult a doctor promptly. For the initial reception, you should contact your local GP or family doctor. After conducting a physical examination and collecting anamnesis, the therapist will refer the patient to an otolaryngologist or a pulmonologist for consultation if necessary. Pediatric tracheitis is successfully treated by pediatricians.
Specialty: therapist, nephrologist.
Total experience: 18 years.
Place of work: Novorossiysk, medical center "Nefros".
Education: 1994-2000 Stavropol State Medical Academy.
- 2014 - "Therapy" full-time advanced training courses on the basis of the State Budgetary Medical Educational Institution of Higher Professional Training "Kuban State Medical University".
- 2014 - "Nephrology" full-time refresher courses on the basis of the Stavropol State Medical University.